To become an expert in VIm takes lots of pratice. This article is a place for me to remember the commands and how they are used. I hope you find it useful.
Saving changes to a file
Shift + : write
Shift + : w
Shift + : quit
Shift + : q
m then x
Marks the current position with x (x can be any letter). (The original vi allows only lowercase letters. Vim distinguishes between uppercase and lowercase letters.)
Returns to the exact position of the previous mark or context after a move.
Look forward for the pattern.
:50,100s/ old/ new/ g
Replace all occurances of old with new between lines 50 and 100.
:1,30s/ his/ the/ gc
Confirm all replacements of his with the between lines 1 and 30.
- Use n to goto the next match.
- Use . to repeat a change.
The first g tells the command to operate on all lines of a file. pattern identifies the lines on which a substitution is to take place. On those lines containing pattern, ex is to substitute (s) for old the characters in new. The last g indicates that the substitution is to occur globally on that line.
Pattern matching rules
(period, dot) Matches any single character except a newline. Remember that spaces are treated as characters. For example, p.p matches character strings such as pep, pip, and pcp.
Matches zero or more (as many as there are) of the single character that immediately precedes it. For example, bugs* will match bugs (one s) or bug (no s). (It will also match bugss, bugsss, and so on.) The * can follow a metacharacter. For example, since . (dot) means any character, .* means “match any number of any character.” Here’s a specific example of this: the command :s/ End.*/ End/ removes all characters after End (it replaces the remainder of the line with nothing).
When used at the start of a regular expression, requires that the following regular expression be found at the beginning of the line. For example, ^ Part matches Part when it occurs at the beginning of a line, and ^… matches the first three characters of a line. When not at the beginning of a regular expression, ^ stands for itself.
When used at the end of a regular expression, requires that the preceding regular expression be found at the end of the line; for example, here: $ matches only when here: occurs at the end of a line. When not at the end of a regular expression, $ stands for itself.
Treats the following special character as an ordinary character. For example, \\. matches an actual period instead of “any single character,” and \\* matches an actual asterisk instead of “any number of a character.” The \\ (backslash) prevents the interpretation of a special character. This prevention is called “escaping the character.” (Use \\\\ to get a literal backslash.)
You can combine :read with a call to Unix, to read the results of a Unix command into your file.